This isn't the first time debris from that test endangered the ISS. In April 2011, the ISS was threatened in a similar incident.
At 6:50 p.m. EST on Saturday, rocket thrusters on the space station's Russian-built Zvezda service module were fired for 1-minute and four seconds, slightly raising the ISS' orbit, which should put it in a position to avoid future such incidents, NASA officials said, adding the ISS is not positioned "at the correct altitude and trajectory for future visiting vehicle activities and to avoid a repetitive coincidence of possible conjunctions with a piece of Chinese Fengyun 1C satellite debris."
Naturally pieces of the Fengyun 1C satellite aren't the only debris that threatens not just the ISS, but other vehicles and satellites. Over a half million pieces of "space junk" are currently tracked daily by NASA and the U.S. military's Space Surveillance Network in order to avoid collisions in orbit.
Earlier this month, the ISS had to fire its thrusters to avoid debris from a 2009 collision between a U.S. and a Russian satellite. That incident, between an Iridium 33 satellite and a Kosmos 2251 satellite, was the first accidental hypervelocity collision between two intact artificial satellites in Earth orbit.